Chicago Turabian Bibliography Examples

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Two Styles in Turabian | Bibliography Style | Reference List Style 


Two Styles in Turabian

This section mentions the two primary ways of citing materials in Turabian before discussing each in more detail below.

Bibliography Style

Reference List Style

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Bibliography Style

This section discusses in greater detail the notes-bibliography style of compiling sources in a bibliography. 

General Format

  • A bibliography compiles each source cited in a dedicated section with single-spaced entries organized alphabetically.

Bibliography Page

  • Start the bibliography on its own page after the text.
  • Place "Bibliography" at the top center, just like a first level header.

Organization 

List each source alphabetically by author's last name, paying special attention to the following:

  • Multiple Sources by the Same Author
    • The first source by the author should be a standard full entry. All of the following sources can use the "3-em dash" substituted in the place of the author's name.
      • (A "3-em dash" is a long, continuous dash the length of three short dashes or hyphens.)
    • The following sources should be arranged alphabetically by title and placed immediately below the first entry. 
  • Sources Without an Author or Editor
    • The first letter of the title, or first part of the entry, should be the letter used to listing the source alphabetically. This is the only difference.

Spacing

Each entry is single-spaced with a hanging indent and an extra space between each entry. 

  • Hanging Indent: A hanging indent means that the first line is flush left, but each subsequent line is indented once, just like a paragraph is indented once.
  • Space Between Entries: While each entry's text is single-spaced each entry should have an extra space separating it from the next entry. (Note: the paper is double-spaced but the bibliography is single-spaced.)

Exclusions

  • Some sources are not included in the final bibliography.
  • Instances of sources that are excluded can be found on a case-by-case basis in our searchable lists of specific examples for citing books, citing journals, citing multimedia, and citing miscellaneous sources.

Online Sources

While online sources may be more difficult to obtain all the citation information for, be sure to include a stable URL or DOI, along with the date the information was accessed.

  • DOI
    • What is it: The DOI is the Digital Object Identifier, a more stable and reliable way of locating a website. 
    • When to use it: The DOI should be used in place of an URL whenever possible. 
    • How to use it: Copy and paste the exact DOI into the document to ensure complete accuracy.
    • Why use it: While an URL may change, the DOI more consistently helps readers find the same information.
  • URL
    • What is it: The URL is the Uniform Resource Identifier, a sort of address for locating a website. 
    • When to use it: If a DOI cannot be found, use the best possible URL. If a source provides a "preferred URL" for accessing an article or page, include the preferred URL. If not, the URL can be found in your web browser's address bar. Whenever possible, locate the preferred URL before using the address bar URL.
    • How to use it: Copy and paste the exact URL into the document to ensure complete accuracy.
    • Why use it: Including the URL helps readers consistently find the same information.

Sample and Examples

All of this information can be overwhelming, so it may be helpful to view a sample paper or example citations: 

Working with Different Types of Bibliographies:

  • The major types of bibliographies are: standard bibliography, single-author bibliography, selected bibliography, and annotated bibliography.

Standard Bibliography

  • A standard bibliography is the most commonly used and follows the guidelines provided above under "General Format."
  • Unless there is a specific reason to use another type of bibliography, this is the typical bibliography.

Single-Author Bibliography

  • A single-author bibliography uses a standard bibliography but additionally includes separate lists of sources produced by one author or group of authors.
  • This special instance should list the single-author bibliography on a separate page that is clearly labeled (Works of Author; Published Works of Author; etc.).

Selected Bibliography

  • A selected bibliography chooses to omit unimportant or uninteresting sources in order to direct readers to the essential sources or save space. If there is good reason and instructor approval, this type of bibliography should be labeled ("Selected Bibliography") and clearly describe the criteria for selection and omission in a headnote beneath the title.

Annotated Bibliography

  • An annotated bibliography chooses to describe the relevance or contents of each source in the bibliography.
  • This information can be included either in short phrases enclosed in brackets after the bibliographical entry, or in a paragraph of complete sentences included below the bibliographical entry.

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Reference List Style

This section discusses in greater detail the author-date style of compiling sources in a reference list. 

General Format

  • A reference list compiles each source cited in a dedicated section with single-spaced entries organized alphabetically and prominently featuring the publication date.

Reference List Page

  • Start the reference list on its own page after the text.
  • Place "References" at the top center of the page, just like a first level header.

Organization

List each source alphabetically by author's last name, paying special attention to the following:

  • Publication Date
    • The publication should immediately follow the name of the author. This allows the reader to quickly track a parenthetical citation back to the precise source in the reference list.
  • Include Full Citations
    • Each source used, and even some sources consulted but not referenced, should be listed in the reference list with complete bibliographical information. (There are no shortcuts or 3-em dashes used like in the bibliography style.)

Spacing

Each entry is single-spaced with a hanging indent and an extra space between each entry. 

  • Hanging Indent: A hanging indent means that the first line is flush left, but each subsequent line is indented once, just like a paragraph is indented once.
  • Space Between Entries: While each entry's text is single-spaced each entry should have an extra space separating it from the next entry. (Note: the paper is double-spaced but the Bibliography is single-spaced.)

Online Sources

While online sources may be more difficult to obtain all the citation information for, be sure to include a stable URL or DOI, along with the date the information was accessed.

  • DOI
    • What is it: The DOI is the Digital Object Identifier, a more stable and reliable way of locating a website. 
    • When to use it: The DOI should be used in place of an URL whenever possible.
    • How to use it: Copy and paste the exact DOI into the document to ensure complete accuracy.
    • Why use it: While an URL may change, the DOI more consistently helps readers find the same information.
  • URL
    • What is it: The URL is the Uniform Resource Identifier, a sort of address for locating a website. 
    • When to use it: If a DOI cannot be found, use the best possible URL. If a source provides a "preferred URL" for accessing an article or page, include the preferred URL. If not, the URL can be found in your web browser's address bar. Whenever possible, locate the preferred URL before using the address bar URL.
    • How to use it: Copy and paste the exact URL into the document to ensure complete accuracy.
    • Why use it: Including the URL helps readers consistently find the same information.

Sample and Examples

All of this information can be overwhelming, so it may be helpful to view a sample paper or example citations: 

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Material on this page adapted from Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th ed. In manual, see 3.2.2, 15.4, 16.2, 18.2.

Bibliography

The bibliography, placed at the end of your paper, is an alphabetized list of books, articles, and other sources used in writing the paper. The word bibliography has many meanings, and if often used to describe all the works written on a particular subject. When you title this section of your paper, use one of these:

  • Selected Bibliography (if you list all of the sources you consulted in writing your paper)
  • Works Cited or References (if you list only the items you actually cited in your paper).

Contents of this page

Formatting your bibliography

While notes and bibliographies contain much of the same information, bibliographic form differs from note form in these ways:

  • Notes are numbered; bibliographies are alphabetized. The author's last name appears first (Smith, Betty) in a bibliography.
  • Notes use commas and parentheses to separate items; a bibliography uses periods. (Put one space—not two—after each period in a bibliographic entry.)
  • Notes indicate specific pages from which you took information; a bibliography lists entire books or a complete chapter or article to which you referred.
  • The first line of each note is indented 5 spaces and subsequent lines return to the left margin. The first line of a bibliographic entry begins at the left margin and all the other lines are indented 5 spaces.

In either note or bibliographic form, if the author's name or the title (or other item) is missing, simply go on to the next item as it should appear. When alphabetizing, use the author's last name for your entry; if it is not given, simply go on to the next item in order (the title of the book or article, for example) and use that to alphabetize the entry.

Sample bibliography

A sample bibliography follows. Notice the form and order of the entries as well as the punctuation and arrangement within the entries. (Don't use boxes around each entry, however.) The entries are the same as those used in the notes.

Boyer, Paul S. Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.

"Charles R. Van Hise." In Wikipedia. Last modified May 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_R._Van_Hise.

Child, Julia, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck. Mastering the Art of French Cooking. New York: Knopf, 1961.

CIA World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009.

Congressional Record. 71st Cong., 2d sess., 1930, vol. 72 pt. 10.

Davidson, Richard. Interview by author. Madison, WI, 20 April 2012.

Dunlavy, Colleen. "Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?" In Major Problems in American Business History, edited by Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006. 257-263.

Morris-Jones, John. "Wales." In Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. New York: Encyclopedia Britannica Company, 1911. 258-270.

Gates, Henry Louis, and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York: Norton, 1997.

Geller, Anne Ellen, Michele Eodice, Frankie Condon, Meg Carroll, and Elizabeth H. Boquet. The Everyday Writing Center. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007.

Johnson, Kirk. "Health Care Is Spread Thin on Alaskan Frontier." New York Times, May 28, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/us/health-care-in-vast-alaska-frontier-is-spread-thin.html?hpw&_r=0.

Lindberg, Sara M. "Gender-Role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification." Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2008.

Marshall, Nancy Rose. Review of Joseph Crawhill, 1861-1913, One of the Glasgow Boys. Victorian Studies 42 (1999/2000): 358-60.

Marwell, Gerald, and Pamela Oliver. The Critical Mass in Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Marshall, Tyler. "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated." Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3.

Neville, Leonora. Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950-1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Reprint, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Nadler, Steven. A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

Sánchez, Raúl. "Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity," College English 74 (2012): 234-246.

Shakespeare, William. Othello. Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Milwaukee, April 2012.

Soderbergh, Steven, director. Che. DVD. New York: Criterion Collection, 2008.

United Nations. "Human Rights." Accessed May 29, 2013. http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/humanrights/.

Wandel, Lee Palmer. "Setting the Lutheran Eucharist." Journal of Early Modern History 17 (1998): 124-55. doi: 10.1163/157006598X00135.

Zukofsky, Louis. "Sincerity and Objectification." Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

[If you cite Costello elsewhere (other than as the secondary source of Zukofsky), you should also include Costello in your list of works cited.]

Bibliography entry: Book

1 author, first edition

Nadler, Steven. A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

1 author, later edition

Boyer, Paul S. Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.

1 author, reprinted book

Neville, Leonora. Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950-1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Reprint, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

2 authors

Marwell, Gerald, and Pamela Oliver. The Critical Mass in Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

3 authors

Child, Julia, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck. Mastering the Art of French Cooking. New York: Knopf, 1961.

More than 3 authors

Geller, Anne Ellen, Michele Eodice, Frankie Condon, Meg Carroll, and Elizabeth H. Boquet. The Everyday Writing Center. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007.

No author

CIA World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009.

Anthology with editors in place of authors

Gates, Henry Louis, and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York: Norton, 1997.

Chapter in an edited collection

Dunlavy, Colleen. "Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?" In Major Problems in American Business History, edited by Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006. 257-263.

Article

Article in a journal

Sánchez, Raúl. "Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity." College English 74 (2012): 234-246.

Book review

Marshall, Nancy Rose. Review of Joseph Crawhill, 1861-1913, One of the Glasgow Boys. Victorian Studies 42 (1999/2000): 358-60.

Newspaper article

Marshall, Tyler. "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated." Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3.

Encyclopedia

The Chicago Manual of Style suggests that well-known encyclopedias should be cited in notes rather than in bibliographies. These examples demonstrate how to compose a bibliographic reference for encylopedia entries that are known to be written by a specific author and for entries by no known author.

Morris-Jones, John. "Wales." In Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. New York: Encyclopedia Britannica Company, 1911. 258-270.

"Charles R. Van Hise." In Wikipedia. Last modified May 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_R._Van_Hise.

Interview by writer of research paper

Davidson, Richard. Interview by author. Madison, WI, April 20, 2012.

Secondary source

Zukofsky, Louis. "Sincerity and Objectification." Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

[If you cite Costello elsewhere (other than as the secondary source of Zukofsky), you should also include Costello in your list of works cited.]

Performance or DVD

Live performance

Shakespeare, William. Othello. Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Milwaukee, April 2012.

DVD

Soderbergh, Steven, director. Che. DVD. New York: Criterion Collection, 2008.

Dissertation

Lindberg, Sara M. "Gender-Role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification." PhD diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2008.

Lecture

Young, Morris. "What Is Asian American? What is Asian American Literature?" Lecture for Survey of Asian American Literature, University of Wisconsin-Madison, January 22, 2013.

Conference presentation

Roberts, Mary Louise. "The Public Practice of History in and for a Digital Age." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association, New Orleans, January 3, 2013.

Government document

Congressional Record. 71st Cong., 2d sess., 1930, vol. 72 pt. 10.

Online Source

Online source that is identical to a print source

Wandel, Lee Palmer. "Setting the Lutheran Eucharist." Journal of Early Modern History 17 (1998): 124-55. doi: 10.1163/157006598X00135.

Online newspaper

Johnson, Kirk. "Health Care Is Spread Thin on Alaskan Frontier." New York Times, May 28, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/us/health-care-in-vast-alaska-frontier-is-spread-thin.html?hpw&_r=0.

Website

United Nations. "Human Rights." Accessed May 29, 2013. http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/humanrights/.

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