Writing a bibliography
A bibliography is a list of all the sources that you used to make your eportfolio. This includes all books, magazines, newspapers, websites, interviews and TV programmes.
There is a standard way of laying them out that you MUST follow. This is:
- Author - put the last name first.
- Title - this should be underlined and in quotation marks.
- Publisher - in a book this is usually located on one of the first few pages.
- Date - the date/year the book/article was published.
Put each source on a single line, with a comma between each and a full stop at the end. You should arrange them in alphabetical order of the author's surname. You should also make sure that the list is double-spaced.
Use the example below as a guide:
Books Fleming, Ian, 'Diamonds are Forever', Penguin Books, 1957.
Jon Spencer, Architect, interviewed on 3/3/2005.
Website http://www.bbc.co.uk/dida, 'Dangers of the Internet', June 2005.
- It is best to keep your bibliography up to date as you go through each project.
- Keep a word processor file called Bibliography open whenever you are working on your project. Add to it whenever you do some research.
- Remember to list authors and sources in alphabetical order.
- Remember it is fine to use secondary sources to gather information for your project, but you cannot just reproduce them. It would be plagiarism [plagiarism: copy a piece of work and passing it off as your own ] and could infringe copyright [copyright: gives the creator of an original piece of work control over its publication, distribution and adaptation ].
- You don't need to have several pages of references, just put in the things you used. Don't add things just for the sake of it.
- You will probably need between 10 and 20 references for most projects.
- Don't put search engines down in your bibliography. It is the information that you found that is the important thing to include.
Now try a Test Bite
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The British National Bibliography
The national bibliography records the publishing activity of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland and as such is a measure of their intellectual output. This has traditionally included printed publications and more recently has been extended to electronic publications following the extension of legal deposit to this class of material in 2003.
New books and serials have been recorded in the British National Bibliography (BNB) since 1950. The BNB is the single most comprehensive listing of UK titles. UK and Irish publishers are obliged by law to send a copy of all new publications, including serial titles, to the Legal Deposit Office of the British Library. This material is catalogued by experienced staff in accordance with international standards for resource description and access. This work is done in partnership with the five other British and Irish libraries allowed by law the privilege of legal deposit, under the Legal Deposit Libraries Shared Cataloguing Programme (LDLSCP).
The BNB also contains details of forthcoming books. Under the Cataloguing-in-Publication Programme (CIP) information on new titles appears up to 16 weeks ahead of the announced publication date. Advance information on well over 50,000 titles each year is provided in this way.
The coverage of the BNB has always been selective (see exclusions policy) with the emphasis being on mainstream monographs available through normal book buying channels.
The availability of BNB records was traditionally shown by the BNBMARC hit-rate derived from the currency survey carried out by the UK Office for Library and Information Networking (UKOLN), but this was discontinued from 1st April 2005 (further information is available by following the link above).
All of BNB is available for searching here. Our Z39.50 service allows downloading records in MARC21 for free.
New records are available as a weekly PDF or as RDF/XML
All of BNB is available in basic RDF/XML. For further information, see here.
A subset of the BNB, i.e. books and serials has been published as Linked Open Data. For further information, see here. Bulk downloads in N-Triples and RDF/XML are available here.
A brief history of the last 60 years and latest developments is now available (PDF format 286KB).
Extending the scope of the British National Bibliography
Other discrete areas of publishing activity contribute to the national bibliography, not all of which are covered by the British Library. Government and many other official publications, for example, are recorded in the catalogues produced by the Stationery Office. In co-operation with other organisations, Collection Metadata is currently developing plans for further extending the scope and coverage of the national bibliography. For example, records for UK online electronic resources began to appear in the BNB from the third week of February 2003.
The titles which make up that part of the national bibliography published by the British Library, and the records they contain, are available to search online and download in MARC format via the Z39.50 service.
For further information please contact:
The British Library
Boston Spa, Wetherby