Animal Diversity In India Essay

Biodiversity refers to the importance of a wide variety of plants and animals that live in the world or in a specific habitat. It is important to maintain this level in order to balance the environmental harmony on our planet. Biodiversity, also referred to as biological diversity, is broadly the diversity or variability of different species of plants and animals on the Earth. It is essential to have high level of biodiversity to keep the natural surroundings in a harmonious state. Here are some essays of varying length on Biodiversity to help you with the topic in your examination.

Essay on Biodiversity

Biodiversity Essay 1 (100 words)

Biodiversity, short for biological diversity, refers to the variety of different species of plants and animals living on Earth. It is important to maintain high level of biodiversity in order to ensure the smooth functioning of the environment and for the survival of mankind.

However, with the growing air, water and land pollution on our planet it is becoming difficult to maintain biodiversity. A number of species of plants and animals have become extinct as a fall-out of the rapid environmental changes caused due to the aforementioned reasons leading to decline in biodiversity. This needs to be controlled to save the planet and those living here.


 

Biodiversity Essay 2 (150 words)

Biodiversity is said to be a measure of different types of plants, animals and other organisms present in the ecosystem. All these contribute in maintaining a healthy environment on the planet and thus play an important role.

The various species of plants and animals present on Earth are not distributed evenly. The main reason for this uneven distribution is the climatic conditions of our planet. The climate varies highly in different parts of the world and thus there is a variation in the kind of life present in each part. The climatic conditions have undergone a major change over the last few decades and this has led to a decline in biodiversity. The growing imbalance can cause a threat to the mankind as well.

It is essential to ensure richness of biodiversity by controlling pollution and building an environment that is safe and secure for all the organisms living on the planet.


 

Biodiversity Essay 3 (200 words)

Biodiversity refers to the variability and variety of different species of plants and animals on Earth. This variety contributes towards making our planet inhabitable.

The reason for unequal distribution of various organisms in different parts of the world is the varied climatic conditions. There is greater terrestrial biodiversity near the equator and this is caused due to warm climate and high primary productivity. On the other hand marine biodiversity is highest along the coasts in the Western Pacific as it has the highest sea surface temperature. Biodiversity basically clusters in hotspots and while it has been on a rise through the time researchers state that it is likely to slow down in the times to come.

It is essential to maintain rich diversity to build a harmonious environment. It enables the survival of human beings by providing them their basic needs such food, shelter, medicines, etc. However, the increasing pollution which is continually degrading the environment is also having a negative impact on biodiversity. Several species that inhabited Earth earlier are now extinct and many other are feared to be extinct in the coming years. This will further lead to environmental imbalance and can prove to be hazardous for the human species.

Biodiversity Essay 4 (250 words)

Biodiversity, also referred to as biological diversity, is the variety of different species of flora and fauna living on Earth. The richer the biodiversity the more balanced and harmonious would the environment be. Different variety of plants and animals contribute their bit to make the planet worth inhabiting. One of the main reasons for the survival of human species on Earth is biodiversity. This is because various species of organisms help in meeting their basic needs of food, shelter, cloth and other resources.

There are around 300,000 species of flora that have been known to date and numerous species of fauna that includes not only animals but also birds, fish, reptiles, mammals, insects, molluscs, crustaceans, etc. Our planet Earth was formed close to 4.54 billion years ago and there have been evidences of life since around 3.5 billion years ago. A number of species of both flora and fauna have gone extinct over the past centuries and many more are anticipated to go extinct in the times to come there by disturbing the level of biodiversity.

Human beings have become so driven towards technology over the years that they have forgotten its repercussions. Several new inventions have proven to be hazardous to the environment and are having a negative impact on biodiversity. It is high time humans should start taking the environmental issues seriously and contribute their bit towards improving the atmosphere. A healthy environment is essential for developing rich biodiversity which in turn is essential for the human beings to live in a harmonious state on Earth.

Biodiversity Essay 5 (300 words)

Biodiversity is basically the measure of different plants, animals and other organisms living on earth. Each variety of flora and fauna present on Earth contributes its bit towards creating a balanced environment which is fit for the survival of the living beings. These species help in fulfilling the basic survival needs of each other. It is thus important to have a rich biodiversity.

How has Biodiversity Declined?

While the importance of maintaining a rich biodiversity has been stressed upon time and again, over the years the level of biodiversity has seen a downward trend and it is likely to go down further in the times to come. The main reason for this is the growing pollution which is an outcome of the industrial wastes and the use of various new-age inventions. Several species of plants and animals have become extinct in the recent past due to the environmental changes brought about by man and many are estimated to go extinct in the coming time. This would lead to further decline in biodiversity which in turn would lead to imbalance in the environment and cause a threat to the human race as well as other organisms living on Earth.

How to Add to Richness of Biodiversity?

It is essential to grow more sensitive towards the environmental concerns. The governments of various countries are spreading awareness about the same and are trying to curb the issue by using different means. It is also the responsibility of the common man to come forward to do his bit to conserve the environment.

Conclusion

Human beings seem to have grown so accustomed to using the technology that they have overlooked the importance of conserving the natural surroundings. It needs to be understood that insensitivity towards environment is nothing but paving way towards your own destruction. Do your bit to bring about the change!


 

Biodiversity Essay (400 words)

Biodiversity, also referred to as Biological Diversity, is the variety of flora and fauna present in a particular habitat or on Earth as a whole. It has largely replaced the more clearly defined terms – species richness and species diversity.

Biodiversity – A Unified View of Biological Varieties

There are many other terms that have been used to define this diversity. These include ecological diversity (viewed from ecosystem diversity perspective), taxonomic diversity (gauged at the species diversity level), functional diversity (computation of the functionally disparate species within population) and morphological diversity (derived from genetic diversity). Biodiversity offers a unified view of all these biological varieties.

Why is Biodiversity Important?

Biodiversity is important as it helps in maintaining a balance in the ecological system. Different plants and animals are interdependent on each other to get their basic needs fulfilled. For instance, human beings are dependent on various plants and animals for their food, shelter and clothes and likewise many other species are dependent on each other for such purposes. Richness of biodiversity makes our planet fit for the survival of each of the species living here.

However, unfortunately the growing pollution is having a negative impact on biodiversity. A number of plants and animals have gone extinct because of this and many are feared to become extinct in the times to come if the level of pollution continues to grow this way. This would result in a decline in biodiversity.

How to Maintain Biodiversity?

Human beings need to understand the importance of maintaining rich biodiversity. The vehicular smoke that leads to massive air pollution is becoming a threat to various species. This is one of the first things that need to be controlled in order to bring down the pollution level in the atmosphere. The industrial waste that goes into the sea is harmful for the marine life and must thus be disposed of using some other means. Similarly, land and noise pollution must also be controlled.

Deforestation is also a major reason for the decline in the level of biodiversity. Not only is it rapidly bringing down the number of plants and trees but it is also taking away shelter from the animals and making it hard for them to survive. Such practices must be controlled in order to ensure harmony in the environment.

Conclusion

Every species of flora and fauna serves its unique purpose towards maintaining the environment and making it worth living. Thus, in order to maintain a balanced environment, it is important to maintain richness and balance of biodiversity.

 

Related Information:

Essays on Climate Change

Global Warming Essay

India boasts a variety of species and organisms.[1] Apart from a handful of the major farm animals such as cows, buffaloes, goats, chickens, and both Bactrian Camels and, Dromedary Camels, India has an amazingly wide spectrum of animals native to the country. It is home to Bengal and Indochinese tigers, Asiatic Lions, Leopards, Snow Leopards, Clouded Leopards, various species of Deer, including Chital, Hangul, Barasingha; the Indian Elephant, the Great Indian Rhinoceros, and many more amongst others.[2][3] The region's rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in 120+ national parks, 18 Bio-reserves and 500+ wildlife sanctuaries across the country. India has some of the most biodiverse regions of the world and hosts three[4] of the world’s 36 biodiversity hotspots[5] – or treasure-houses – that is the Western Ghats, the Eastern Himalayas and Indo-Burma.[6] Since India is home to a number of rare and threatened animal species, wildlife management in the country is essential to preserve these species.[7] India is one of the seventeen megadiverse countries. According to one study, India along with other 16 mega diverse countries is home to about 60-70% of the world's biodiversity.[8] India, lying within the Indomalaya ecozone, is home to about 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of avian (bird), 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species.[9]

Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, to which India originally belonged. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic change 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.[10] Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya.[11] As a result, among Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians.[9] Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species.[12] These include the Asian elephant, the Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, Indian rhinoceros, mugger crocodile, and Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle.

In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; further federal protections were promulgated in the 1980s. Along with over 515 wildlife sanctuaries, India now hosts 18 biosphere reserves, 10 of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; 26 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.

The pipalfig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro, shaded Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment. The varied and rich wildlife of India has had a profound impact on the region's popular culture. The word has been also made famous in The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. India's wildlife has been the subject of numerous other tales and fables such as the Panchatantra.

Fauna[edit]

Main article: Fauna of India

India is home to several well-known large mammals, including the Asian elephant, Bengal and Indochinese tigers,[13][14] Asiatic lion, Indian leopard,[15]Indian sloth bear and Indian rhinoceros. Some other well-known large Indian mammals are: ungulates such as the rare wild Asian water buffalo, common domestic Asian water buffalo, gail, gaur, and several species of deer and antelope. Some members of the dog family, such as the Indian wolf, Bengal fox and golden jackal, and the dhole or wild dogs are also widely distributed. However, the dhole, also known as the whistling hunter, is the most endangered top Indian carnivore, and the Himalayan wolf is now a critically endangered species endemic to India.[citation needed] It is also home to the striped hyena, macaques, langur and mongoose species.

Flora[edit]

Main article: Flora of India

There are about 17500 taxa of flowering plants from India. The Indian Forest Act, 1927 helped to improve protection of the natural habitat. Many ecoregions, such as the sholaforests, also exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic.[16][17]

India's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and Northeast India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India; teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain.[11] Important Indian trees include the medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies.

Conservation[edit]

The need for conservation of wildlife in India is often questioned because of the apparently incorrect priority in the face of direct poverty of the people. However, Article 48 of the Constitution of India specifies that, "The state shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country" and Article 51-A states that "it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures."[18] The committee in the Indian Board for Wildlife, in their report, defines wildlife as "the entire natural uncultivated flora and fauna of the country" while the Wildlife (protection) Act 1972 defines it as "any animal, bees, butterflies, crustacea, fish, moths and aquatic or land vegetation which forms part of any habitat."[19]

Despite the various environmental issues faced, the country still has a rich and varied wildlife compared to Europe.[19] Large and charismatic mammals are important for wildlife tourism in India, and several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries cater to these needs. Project Tiger, started in 1972, is a major effort to conserve the tiger and its habitats.[20] At the turn of the 20th century, one estimate of the tiger population in India placed the figure at 40,000, yet an Indian tiger census conducted in 2008 revealed the existence of only 1,411 tigers. 2010 tiger census revealed that there are 1700 tigers left in India.[21] As per the latest tiger census (2015), there are around 2226 tigers in India. By far, there is an overall 30% increase in tiger population. [22] Various pressures in the later part of the 20th century led to the progressive decline of wilderness resulting in the disturbance of viable tiger habitats. At the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) General Assembly meeting in Delhi in 1969, serious concern was voiced about the threat to several species of wildlife and the shrinkage of wilderness in India. In 1970, a national ban on tiger hunting was imposed, and in 1972 the Wildlife Protection Act came into force. The framework was then set up to formulate a project for tiger conservation with an ecological approach. However, there is not much optimism about this framework's ability to save the peacock, which is the national bird of India. George Schaller wrote about tiger conservation:[23]

Recent extinctions[edit]

The exploitation of land and forest resources by humans along with capturing and trapping for food and sport has led to the extinction of many species in India in recent times. These species include mammals such as the Indian/Asiatic cheetah, wild zebu, Indian Javan rhinoceros, and Northern Sumatran rhinoceros.[24] While some of these large mammal species are confirmed extinct, there have been many smaller animal and plant species whose status is harder to determine. Many species have not been seen since their description. Gir forest in India has the only surviving population of Asiatic lions in the world.]]Some species of birds have gone extinct in recent times, including the pink-headed duck (Rhodonessa caryophyllacea) and the Himalayan quail (Ophrysia superciliosa). A species of warbler, Acrocephalus orinus, known earlier from a single specimen collected by Allan Octavian Hume from near Rampur in Himachal Pradesh, was rediscovered after 139 years in Thailand.[25][26]

National symbols (animals)[edit]

Biosphere reserves[edit]

The Indian government has established eighteen biosphere reserves of India which protect larger areas of natural habitat and often include one or more national parks and/or preserves, along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses. Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region, but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions, and their ways of life.

The bio-reserves in India are:

Ten of the eighteen biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the UNESCOMan and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) list.[28]

Fungi[edit]

The diversity of fungi[29] and their natural beauty occupy a prime place in the biological world and India has been a cradle for such organisms. Only a fraction of the total fungal wealth of India has been subjected to scientific scrutiny and mycologists have to unravel this unexplored and hidden wealth. One-third of fungal diversity of the globe exists in India. The country has an array of 10 diverse biomes including Trans-Himalayan zone, Himalaya, Desert, Semi-Arid zone, Western Ghats, Deccan Peninsula, Gangetic Plain, North-Eastern India, Coasts and Islands where varied dominating regimes manifest. This enables the survival of manifold fungal flora in these regions which include hot spot areas like the Himalayan ranges, Western Ghats, hill stations, mangroves, sea coasts, fresh water bodies etc. Many fungi have been recorded from these regions and from the country in general comprising thermophiles, psychrophiles, mesophiles, aquatic forms, marine forms, plant and animal pathogens, edible fungi and beneficial fungi and so on. The number of fungi recorded in India exceeds 27,000 species, the largest biotic community after insects. The true fungi belong to the Kingdom[30] Fungi which has four phyla, 103 orders, 484 families and 4979 genera. About 205 new genera have been described from India, of which 32% were discovered by C. V. Subramanian of the University of Madras.[31][32] These features indicate a ten-fold increase in the last 80 years.

Species examples[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Encyclopedia of World Geography By Peter Haggett
  2. ^"7 Rare and Exotic Wildlife Species that can be found in India". 
  3. ^"Animals in Indian Sub-Continent". 
  4. ^"Stephen et al., 2015 - Indian Biodiversity: Past, Present and Future, International Journal of Environment and Natural Sciences, Vol.7, 13-28"(PDF). Retrieved 2018-02-20. 
  5. ^"CEPF.net - The Biodiversity Hotspots". www.cepf.net. Retrieved 2017-03-05. 
  6. ^South India By Sarina Singh, Stuart Butler, Virginia Jealous, Amy Karafin, Simon Richmond, Rafael Wlodarski
  7. ^Biodiversity and its conservation in India By Sharad Singh Negi
  8. ^Explorations in Applied Geography By Dutt Misra & Chatterjee (eds.) , L R Singh, Ashok K Dutt, H N Misra, Meera Chatterjee
  9. ^ abIndira Gandhi Conservation Monitoring Centre (IGCMC), New Delhi and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK. 2001. Biodiversity profile for India.
  10. ^K. Praveen Karanth. (2006). Out-of-India Gondwanan origin of some tropical Asian biota
  11. ^ abTritsch, M.E. 2001. Wildlife of India Harper Collins, London. 192 pages. ISBN 0-00-711062-6
  12. ^Groombridge, B. (ed). 1993. The 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. lvi + 286 pp.
  13. ^Luo, S.-J.; Kim, J.-H.; Johnson, W. E.; van der Walt, J.; Martenson, J.; Yuhki, N.; Miquelle, D. G.; Uphyrkina, O.; Goodrich, J. M.; Quigley, H. B.; Tilson, R.; Brady, G.; Martelli, P.; Subramaniam, V.; McDougal, C.; Hean, S.; Huang, S.-Q.; Pan, W.; Karanth, U. K.; Sunquist, M.; Smith, J. L. D., O'Brien, S. J. (2004). "Phylogeography and genetic ancestry of Panthera tigris". PLoS Biology. 2 (12): e442. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020442. PMC 534810. PMID 15583716. 
  14. ^Jhala, Y. V., Qureshi, Q., Sinha, P. R. (Eds.) (2011). Status of tigers, co-predators and prey in India, 2010. National Tiger Conservation Authority, Govt. of India, New Delhi, and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. TR 2011/003 pp-302
  15. ^Pocock, R. I. (1939). "Panthera leo". The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. London: Taylor and Francis Ltd. pp. 212–222. 
  16. ^Botanical Survey of India. 1983. Flora and Vegetation of India — An Outline. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah. 24 pp.
  17. ^Valmik Thapar, Land of the Tiger: A Natural History of the Indian Subcontinent, 1997.
  18. ^Krausman, PR & AT Johnson (1990) Conservation and wildlife education in India. Wild. Soc. Bull. 18:342-347
  19. ^ abSingh, Mahesh Prasad; Singh, J. K.; Mohanka, Reena (2007-01-01). Forest Environment and Biodiversity. Daya Publishing House. pp. 116–118. ISBN 9788170354215. 
  20. ^Project Tiger Accessed February 2007
  21. ^NDTV
  22. ^corbett-national-park.com
  23. ^Shashwat, D.C. (27 June 2007) "The Last Roar?", Dataquest Magazine, India.
  24. ^Vivek Menon (2003). A field guide to Indian mammals. Dorling Kindersley, Delhi. ISBN 0-14-302998-3. 
  25. ^Threatened birds of Asia [1] Accessed October 2006
  26. ^The Nation, 6 March 2007
  27. ^Dolphin becomes India’s national aquatic animal
  28. ^UNESCO, Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list
  29. ^Fungi or Fungus Wikipedia Fungus
  30. ^Classification of Organisms Wikipedia Kingdom (biology)
  31. ^
The Hanuman langur with newborn. At least seven species of grey langurs are found in India out of which five are endemic.
The Indian leopard is found across the Indian subcontinent. Poaching for its skin is a serious threat to the leopard.

0 thoughts on “Animal Diversity In India Essay

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *