Ks3 Geography Volcano Case Study

Volcano case studies

You should make sure you are familiar with 2 case studies:
Either: Nyiragongo, Democratic Republic of Congo - Poor Country or Montserrat, Caribbean - Poor Country
AND
Either: Mount St. Helens, USA - Rich Country or Iceland - Rich Country

Key terms:

Primary effects: the immediate effects of the eruption, caused directly by it
Secondary effects: the after-effects that occur as an indirect effect of the eruption on a longer timescale
 Immediate responses: how people react as the disaster happens and in the immediate aftermath 
Long-term responses: later reactions that occur in the weeks, months and years after the event

Nyiragongo

The video below contains more information on the primary and secondary effects of a volcano

On 17th January 2002 Nyiragongo volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) was disturbed by the movement of plates along the East African Rift Valley. This led to lava spilling southwards in three streams.

The primary effects - The speed of the lava reached 60kph which is especially fast. The lava flowed across the runway at Goma airport and through the town splitting it in half. The lava destroyed many homes as well as roads and water pipes, set off explosions in fuel stores and powerplants and killed 45 people 

The secondary effects - Half a million people fled from Goma into neighbouring Rwanda to escape the lava. They spent the nights sleeping on the streets of Gisenyi. Here, there was no shelter, electricity or clean water as the area could not cope with the influx. Diseases such as cholera were a real risk. People were frightened of going back. However, looting was a problem in Goma and many residents returned within a week in hope of receiving aid.

Responses - In the aftermath of the eruption, water had to be supplied in tankers. Aid agencies, including Christian Aid and Oxfam, were involved in the distribution of food, medicine and blankets.


Montserrat - Poor country case study

Mount St Helens - Rich country case study

Mount St. Helens is one of five volcanoes in the Cascade Range in Washington State, USA. The volcano erupted at 8:32am on 18th May 1980. 

Effects - An earthquake caused the biggest landslide ever recorded and the sideways blast of pulverised rock, glacier ice and ash wiped out all living things up to 27km north of the volcano. Trees were uprooted and 57 people died.

Immediate responses - helicopters were mobilised to search and rescue those in the vicinity of the catastrophic blast. Rescuing survivors was a priority, followed by emergency treatment in nearby towns. Air conditioning systems were cleaned after by clogged with ash and blocked roads were cleared. Two million masks were ordered to protect peoples lungs.

Long-term responses - Buildings and bridges were rebuilt. Drains had to be cleared to prevent flooding. The forest which was damaged had to be replanted by the forest service. Roads were rebuilt to allow tourists to visit. Mount St. Helens is now a major tourist attraction with many visitor centres.


Iceland - Rich country case study

Location:
Iceland lies on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a constructive plate margin separating the Eurasian plate from the North American plate. As the plates move apart magma rises to the surface to form several active volcanoes located in a belt running roughly SW-NE through the centre of Iceland. Eyjafjallajokull (1,666m high) is located beneath an ice cap in southern Iceland 125km south east of the capital Reykjavik

The Eruption:
In March 2010, magma broke through the crust beneath Eyjafjallajokull glacier. This was the start of two months of dramatic and powerful eruptions that would have an impact on people across the globe. The eruptions in March were mostly lava eruptions. Whilst they were spectacular and fiery they represented very little threat to local communities,
However, on 14th April a new phase began which was much more explosive. Over a period  of several days in mid-April violent eruptions belched huge quantities of ash in the atmosphere.

Local impacts and responses:
The heavier particles of ash (such as black gritty sand) fell to the ground close to the volcano, forcing hundreds of people to be evacuated (immediate response) from their farms and villages. As day turned to night, rescuers wore face masks to prevent them choking on the dense cloud of ash. These ash falls, which coated agricultural land with a thick layer of ash, were the main primary effects of the eruption.
One of the most damaging secondary effects of the eruption was flooding. As the eruption occurred beneath a glacier, a huge amount of meltwater was produced. Vast torrents of water flowed out from under the ice. Sections of embankment that supported the main highway in Southern Iceland were deliberately breached by the authorities to allow floodwaters to pass through to the sea. This action successfully prevented expensive bridges being destroyed. After the eruption, bulldozers were quickly able to rebuild the embankments and within a few weeks the highway was reconstructed.

Local impacts:
800 people evacuated
Homes and roads were damaged and services (electricity & water) disrupted
Local flood defences had to be constructed
Crops were damaged by heavy falls of ash
Local water supplies were contaminated with fluoride from the ash

National impacts:
Drop in tourist numbers - affected Iceland's economy as well as local people's jobs and incomes
Road transport was disrupted as roads were washed away by floods
Agricultural production was affected as crops were smothered by a thick layer of ash
Reconstruction of roads and services was expensive

International impacts:
Over 8 days  - some 100,000 flights were cancelled
10 million air passengers affected
Losses estimated to be £80 million
Industrial production halted due to a lack of raw materials
Fresh food could not be imported
Sporting events such as the Japanese Motorcycle grand prix, Rugby leagues challenge cup and the Boston Marathon were affected

International impacts and responses:
The eruption of Eyjafjallajokull became an international event in mid-April 2010 as the cloud of fine ash spread south-eastwards toward the rest of Europe. Concerned about the possible harmful effects of ash on aeroplane jet engines, large sections of European airspace closed down. Passenger and freight traffic throughout much of Europe ground to a halt.
The knock-on effects were extensive and were felt across the world. Business people and tourists were stranded unable to travel in to or out of Western Europe. Industrial production was affected as raw materials could be flown in and products could not be exported by air. As far away as Kenya, farm workers lost their jobs or suffered pay cuts as fresh produce such as flowers and bean perished, unable to be flown to European supermarkets. The airline companies and airport operators lost huge amounts of money.
Some people felt that the closures were an over-reaction and that aeroplanes could fly safely through low concentrations of ash. However, a scientific review conducted after the eruption concluded that under the circumstances it had been right to close the airspace. Further research will be carried out as a long-term response to find better ways of monitoring ash concentrations and improving forecast methods.


Introduction   to   Continental   Drift

Objective: To find if Earth has always looked the same and to find out what continental drift means.

Resource 1 - Introductory PowerPoint*
Resource 2 - Plates PuzzleInstructions and Answers

Task 1 - Watch the first YouTube video clip below and ask students for their feedback on what the theme of the film is.

Task 2 - Use resource 1 to introduce tasks to students but don't show the last slide. Print out and hand out the student sheets on resource 2

Task 3 - Watch the video below to see a brief history of continental drift. Enjoy the music!

Plenary - Test yourselfon the key terms covered.
*Thanks to JMJBayley from TES.co.uk


Plate  Tectonics  -  Keep  on  Moving

Tasks

 Objective: To find out how our earth is structured and how the top layer (crust) works.

Starter: Watch the video - Layers of the Earth - below!

Presentation PowerPointwith questions and images
Teacher Lesson Plan- For this lesson

Task 1 - Complete this worksheeton the structure of the earth. You will need to use this website to help you with task 2.

We are now going to focus on the top layer of the earth - the crust. This is the cooled down layer that has solidified a bit like skin on top of a pan of custard! 

Task 2 - Using the large plate map image below (click to enlarge), complete your plate map worksheet. The first one is easier and the second is a little bit more testing as both maps are different views of the world. Are you up to the challenge? Add plate boundaries (black lines) and the names of the plates. 


Summary: The Earth consists of four concentric layers: inner core, outer core, mantle and crust. The crust is made up of tectonic plates, which are in constant motion.  (source BBC Bitesize)

Task 3 - Watch the video beneath that will re-visit what we have learnt so far and give you some new information on what we will be doing next.

When  Two  Plates  Meet

Objective: To find out what happens under the ground when two plates meet. To discover the physical features that are created at plate boundaries.

Teacher Resource: Lesson Planfor alternative lesson.
LessonPowerPoint: (Not my creation but unsure of the innovative source)

Task 1 - Using this worksheet and the images and text below, copy and paste the correct images and statements into the correct place in the table. Use the clues in the description to help you and your completed A3 size plate maps from last lesson (see above).

Check the work with your teacher and then print out a copy of your sheet for your folder.
Thanks to David Mullarkey from TES for the recording sheet


Explosive   Volcanoes 

Additional Work
Volcano Homework Booklet (not sure of source but happy to credit the innovative owner)

Live   On   a   Volcano? - you  Must  be   Mad! 

Example Student Work

Building Your Own model Volcano    

Objective: To contruct a 3D volcano that contains annotated labels and shows some of the reasons why people live so close to volcanoes. 

Starter:Click hereto be taken to a virtual volcano constructing site. Spend 10 minutes exploring volcanoes and then set off your own!! 

Task 1 - Click hereto download the volcano outline. Follow the instructions carefully to label, cut and then create your 3D volcano

Task 2 - Create a suitable base for the volcano and add some features to the surrounding area. Can you remember why so many people live so close to volcanoes? Perhaps you could even include a volcanologist studying it from a safe distance! See the examples below from last year. Wow!

New for 2012/2013 - Click here


Shake - Rattle  - Quake

Responding to Quakes

Objective: To complete a 'living graphs' exercise and to find out about the different ways in which people can respond to the threat of a big quake. 

Starter: What happens during an earthquake?
In pairs, complete this living graph exercise. You might want to check out the YouTube video below first to show you how a seismograph works. 



Crash, Bang  

Volcanoes

Objective: To understand how and where a volcano is created and how they erupt.

Task 1 - Watch the first YouTube video to below. This gives examples of the destructive power of volcanoes. Discuss how  they affect people.

Task 2 - Watch the second YouTube video below and pause after 0.38 seconds. Write down how the different people in this image would feel as they saw this huge pyroclastic flow hurtling down the valley towards them.  Write your thoughts on this worksheet. 

Task 3 - Complete either this  Simple Cross Section of a volcano or More Complex Cross Section

Task 4 - Find out about a pyroclastic flow. Watch the third video to the right hand side.  Use this sheet to record your information. 

a. What causes them? 
b. How fast can they travel?  
c. How hot can they be inside? 
d. What effect to they have on the human body? 

Task 5 - Find out about the most famous pyroclastic flow of all time. The place is Pompeii and the volcano is called Vesuvius.  Use this PowerPoint to help you. 

Choice 1 - Using this famous diary written by an eyewitness, create a piece of artwork that shows the effect of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius on Pompeii.

Choice 2 - Create a fact sheet using this template about the eruption and what tourists can see today if they visit Pompeii today. Clue - look at the picture below!


Objective: To find out why people live close to violent volcanoes.

Task 1 - Click on the Google logo bottom left of the map and write out a description of the location of Mount Etna. You must include the name of the island, the closest towns, the name of the country and the name of the continent.  

Task 2 - Click this link to see what Mount Etna is doing today! Active or Dormant? Can you see any sign of life? 

Task 3 - Watch the first YouTube video to the right hand side. When it has finished, complete this worksheet carefully. 

Go back to the Google Map above and zoom out until you can see the town of Zafferana Etnea. Found it?  Here's the story. 

Zafferana Etnea lies about 30km south east of the crater of Mount Etna. Since 1992, the town and its inhabitants have been under threat from the volcano erupting. Check out the two videos beneath. They give you an idea why Etna worries the town so much.

In the past 20 years many people have left the town and never returned. They have been too scared to stay. Mount Etna has been dormant since December 2015 and Luigi, the mayor of Zafferana, (to the right) has asked for your help. 

"I need to get my people back to Zafferana. How can I get them back? Many people are scared of the volcano but it is very important in many ways. Help me to fill empty houses and make this town alive again" 

Your Mission
Inform people of the potential BENEFITS of living close to Mount Etna and how they can stop the lava from future eruptions from damaging their homes. Use the presentation to your right and the worksheet in task 3 to help you.

You can present these in one of the following ways:
1. Poster
2. Radio Broadcast
3. Short Film
4. Live Act

You will only be paid if people move back to Zafferana so think carefully about how you are going to persuade them. 

Extra Resources
 - Click here for the BBC page on Mount Etna. Study this page carefully and perhaps watch 'Active Mount Etna'.

Etna Newspaper 

Task 1 - Click here to access the Etna Booklet. Study this carefully.

Task 2 - Watch this videothat shows you what the American and Italian Army tried to do to stop the flow of lava towards the town of Zafferana.

Task 3 - Usethis framework to create a newspaper article about the eruption of Mount Etna in 2012. You may want to make reference to previous eruptions and what happened then.

Stop Check: An example of good practice is here.

Homework. Watch the video below (on the right) from 36 minutes until the end. Find out what happens when a famous volcanologist gets up close and personal to Mount Etna!

Shake, Rattle & Roll

Objective:To discover what causes earthquakes and how they can be measured.

Task 1 - Empathy. How would you feel? Study this presentationcarefully and watch the video at the bottom of this page. Complete the tasks as set out.*

Task 2 - Study this presentationcarefully and watch the embedded video. Make a copy of the 3D diagram showing the cause of earthquakes.

Task 3 - Use this worksheetto design a cartoon strip to show the nine different levels of the Richter Scale. This is the scale used to measure the power of earthquakes and is based on what you would see around you. If you have access to ICT, perhaps you can use www.stripcreator.com to make your cartoon strip.

Extra - As you are completing these tasks, your teacher might say a certain word or show this presentation*. Get to a safe place as soon as possible. Where could that safe place be?
*Thanks to Tony Cassidy and Radical Geography


In grammar, an adjective is a 'describing' word
Task 1 - Continued. You are asked to write a brief piece of creative writing entitled ‘The earthquake through my eyes’ by a local journalist.

You should first draft your piece in the back of your book, you should then present your piece on A4 plain paper, writing up your work in neat and illustrating it.

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