Essay about The Industrial Revolution, Capitalism, and Socialism
810 WordsOct 26th, 20124 Pages
The Industrial Revolution brought about great changes in how goods were produced and consumed, but it also brought about social and political changes. Some were positive, such as machines relieving much of the toil previously placed on worker’s muscles. But there were also negative changes.
As workers moved to cities to work in factories, and progress in medical and sanitation practices improved, urban crowding became a huge issue. Additionally, where industry was taking over production in markets that had previously been dominated by small business owners, these skilled workers, weavers and the like, were now being forced to take jobs working for capitalist ventures-- often working in the industry coinciding with their master skill, but…show more content…
Those in defence of capitalism say that it forces producers to develop new or improved products and to develop ways of working more efficiently. On the other hand, those against capitalism state that it causes economic inequality, exploitation of the working class and causes overall social disruption.
The rise of capitalism was a driving force in the development of communism. The disparity of wealth, overcrowding of urban centers, undermining of skilled workers and the appalling living and working conditions of the working class have lead to wars and a forming of a socialist or communist point-of-view.
Socialism is the underlying motivation behind communist movements in history. Socialists believe that it is unjust for a small amount of people to own the biggest portion of the wealth in society. This idea lead to the concept of a communist society, in which the existence of private property is eliminated in favor of government-owned property being shared among all it’s people. The government would provide jobs and care for all people equally. The idea was that through communism, there would be no social classes, thus eliminating alienation for any of the people in the society.
In comparison, capitalism and communism are like night and day--opposite of each other in every way, but the main differences in the two can be seen in the distribution of wealth among a society’s peoples and the appearance
The industrial revolution that occurred in the first half of the nineteenth century in the countries of northern Europe resulted from a succession of several events, of which the most important were:
- the agricultural revolution that occurred in the eighteenth century with the emergence of new agricultural techniques, which made possible the increase in food production. And because less labour force was required, rural population was released from agricultural work and migrated to the cities, creating an extra supply of workers available to be employed in industry;
- the technological development, mainly the invention of the steam engine, which allowed both the development of industrial mass production and the evolution of transportation;
- the possession of colonial empires by European countries, which not only provided cheap raw materials that were manufactured in Europe but also constituted markets for the sale and placement of such products.
The development of production and transportation changed the existence of a mercantilist capitalism or trade in which countries were limited to exchange among themselves raw materials or agricultural products that were produced or obtained from their colonies, into an industrial capitalism, with the multiplication of production and wealth (financial capitalism).