in the USSR, a normative document that establishes traffic rules.
The Road Traffic Rules are compulsory for all participants in road traffic, including drivers, pedestrians, and passengers. The regulations apply not only to streets and roads but also to all places where traffic is possible—on forest and unpaved roads, ice crossings, fields (for example, in agricultural work), and enclosed areas (motor pools, plants, and factories). They may not be contradicted by other normative documents concerned with the shipment of special freight and the operation of certain types of transport equipment—for example, the technical operation rules for certain forms of transportation and instructions and orders from ministries and departments concerning the operation of motor vehicles.
The Road Traffic Rules promote safe, fast traffic. They establish the meaning of the signals of traffic lights and traffic controllers, road signs, and road markings and describe the movements of participants in road traffic in the most typical conditions and situations. The rules regulate the positioning of vehicles on the roadway, the changing of position, passing, stopping, parking, and traversing intersections and railroad crossings. They also establish speed limits for populated areas. An important part of the traffic rules is the list of requirements that vehicles in operation must meet. The law provides for criminal prosecution, fines, or disciplinary measures when the regulations are violated, depending on the nature of the violation and its consequences. Special measures of social influence may also be applied.
The first traffic rules after the October Revolution of 1917, On Vehicle Traffic in the City of Moscow and Its Environs (Rules), were ratified in 1920 by a decree signed by V. I. Lenin. Until 1940 traffic regulations were developed and ratified by local governmental agencies, such as city, oblast, and krai Soviets of workers’ deputies. There were unnecessary differences in the rules, and they were in large part oriented to draft animal transport. In 1940 the first model rules in the USSR were ratified to serve as a basis for the development of local rules. Even greater uniformity became possible after ratification of the model traffic rules of 1957, which eliminated many restrictions. From 1957 to 1959 republic road traffic rules were put into effect in most of the Union republics on the basis of the model rules.
In 1959 the USSR joined the international traffic convention and protocol on highway signs and signals adopted in 1949 at a UN conference on road and vehicle transport. Taking into account the international documents, the first standard road traffic rules for the entire USSR were introduced (with amplifications and refinements) on Jan. 1, 1961. In January 1965 the Traffic Rules for the Streets of Cities and Populated Areas and the Roads of the USSR were introduced. The Road Transport Committee of the UN Economic Commission for Europe, with USSR participation, worked out two new international agreements—a convention on traffic and a convention on highway signs and signals. They were adopted at a UN conference in Vienna in 1968. The latest domestic and international experience in motor vehicle transportation and road traffic was reflected in the road traffic rules that went into effect on Jan. 1, 1973.
REFERENCEPravila dorozhnogo dvizheniia. Moscow, 1974.
V. V. LUK’IANOV
The statistics of road accidents in India is devilishly alarming. Nearly 1,214 road crashes occur daily, and amidst this, there are sixteen children, who are never able to return to their mothers every day. Most of these casualties involve children aging between 5 to 14 years.
Road safety as such is a crucial issue, and it is the duty of parents to enlighten their children about how they must adhere to traffic rules and signs while walking on the road.
Road Safety in India
Road Safety Day/Week
In major metro cities of India, every year, an entire week is dedicated to the careful observation of road safety measures. Transport departments of different states give slogans, put up posters and distribute leaflets in schools and colleges to create awareness regarding road safety throughout the week.
Why is Road Safety Important
To Prevent Accidents
Many of us have a habit of running across roads, disregarding traffic signals that often results in pathetic accidents. By knowing and practicing pedestrian rules, we can at least make sure of remaining unhurt.
To Make our Children Responsible
When young, children generally imbibe everything that they see. Consequently, if they are taught how they should behave or walk on the road at an early age, they develop a positive behavior and attitude that helps them to avoid accidents in the long run. After all, they are the future of the world.
Tips on Safety Rules and Regulations on the Roads of India
Measures for When Walking on the Road
Road Safety Rules for Pedestrians
Learn the Traffic Signals
We should know that red signal means “stop,” green goes for, “go,” and yellow symbolizes “slow down” for, by following these signals appropriately, we can ward off dangerous mishaps on road.
Stop, Look and Cross
In case there are no signals or pedestrian crossings, it is imperative that we should look to their right, then left to check if any vehicle is coming, wait and eventually cross a road. We also must never cross during traffic jams.
Listen Carefully and Don’t Rush
Many times, children leave their parent’s hands to run to the other side of a road and thus invite unprecedented disasters. Even adults commit the same mistake. We should never do so, and learn how to respond to horns and other engine sounds so as to become aware of an approaching vehicle.
Always Use Zebra Crossings and Sidewalks
We must know the significance of zebra crossings and should make a habit of using them while crossing a road. Also, we should employ sidewalks for walking.
Never Play on Roads
Children should abstain from playing on roads or pavements for, in running behind their toy or ball, they may become unfortunate victims of severe calamities.
Measures for When Driving or Travelling in a Vehicle
Be Cautious While Driving
Not only walking but while driving too, we must rigidly follow certain rules like wearing seat belts, maintaining a safe distance from another vehicle and not over-speeding, so as to ensure that no accidents occur on road.
Indian Road Safety Signs Image
Be Aware of Traffic Signs and Symbols
There are three types of road safety signs – mandatory, cautionary and informatory that enlightens us about the condition of a road ahead and instructs us what we need to do at relevant junctions and crossroads. By being conscious of these signs, we can affirm of not running into problems.
Refrain From Sticking Hands Outside Vehicles
While going in a school bus, children must never hang their hands or heads outside windows, for they can get hit by vehicles coming from the opposite side.
A death constitutes the greatest irreparable loss and generates a void that can never fill up. And when it happens due to a moment of carelessness on the street, there is no consoling the grief. Hence, conscious efforts should be taken by everyone so that each one of us, after going out, can return safely.
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