Outlining A Research Paper Draft

Sample Outline #2

Title: The FederalistPapers’ Influence on the Ratification of the Constitution

Thesis: The Federalist Papers influenced the ratification of the Constitution by making some of their most important arguments, including the importance of being in a Union by having a Constitution, answering to the objections made by the Anti-federalists about separation of powers, and defending opposing arguments made against the characteristics of the executive and judicial branch as provided in the Constitution.

            I.     Introduction

a.      Describe The Federalist Papers are and when they started

b.     Thesis:The Federalist influenced the ratification of the Constitution by making some of their most important arguments, including the importance of being in a Union by having a Constitution, answering to the objections made by the Anti-federalists about separation of powers, and defending opposing arguments made against the characteristics of the executive and judicial branch as provided in the Constitution.

          II.     Background

a.      State when The Federalist was printed and published.

b.     Discuss the intentions and purposes of The Federalist.

        III.     Argument for the benefit of a

a.      A would guard against external dangers

b.     A would guard against internal dangers

A.    The “extended sphere” argument about how it will control factions. (Federalist 10)

       IV.     Argument of the problem with complete separation of powers

a.      Anti-federalists wanted a complete separation of the judicial, executive, and legislative branches

b.     The Federalist said the maxim of complete separation of powers is misunderstood. (Montesquieu)

c.      The branches need some limited power of the other branches to protect themselves from encroachment of the other branches (Federalist 51)

A.    The branches need to have the interests of maintaining their powers, and not letting the other branches take that away.

         V.     Argument for a single executive, and against a plural executive

a.      Anti-federalists didn’t want a single executive, too much like a monarch

b.     The Federalist need the executive to be “energetic” and a plural executive would make this impossible (Federalist 70)

A.    It would take too long for the people in the executive position to make decision in an emergency, because they might disagree.

B.    In a plural executive, it is hard to tell who is responsible for a wrongdoing because they can all blame each other, so a single executive would lead to more responsible behavior

       VI.     Argument in favor of judicial review and terms of good behavior for judges

a.      Anti-federalists didn’t like judicial review and the term of good behavior

b.     The Federalist argued that judicial review was necessary to protect the judicial branch from the Legislature.

c.      A term of good behavior was necessary to get qualified people for the positions; it would also give them time to develop knowledge.

     VII.     Conclusion

a.      Thesis

b.     The dates of the ratification of the Constitution by the States

c.      The Federalist’s influence beyond the ratification

Having developed your outline, you should now be able to begin your rough draft.

Flexibility in the outline- Though your outline will assist you in writing your essay, don't be afraid to be flexible in your thinking--your ideas about the structure of the paper may change as you write. If you need to elaborate on a point, or can condense two supporting ideas into a single paragraph, do so.

Perfectionism- Your first draft will not, by any means, be perfect. If a paragraph or section of your essay doesn’t come off quite the way you want it, try not to get bogged down in fixing it. Just make a note of the weak segment, and move on. You can always revise any weak passages once the draft is complete.

Writer’s block – Don’t panic if you find yourself hung up on a certain section or paragraph. Instead of staring blankly at the page and waiting for inspiration to strike, you might try one of the following suggestions:

      1. Take a short break. Set aside fifteen minutes or so to stretch, have a snack, or take a walk.

      2. Write a sentence or two about the problem you’re encountering in completing the project.

      3. Write out the last couple of sentences with a pen and paper.

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